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  • 数控技术的总体概述
  • 本站编辑:杭州宽旺机械设备有限公司发布日期:2019-02-27 13:33 浏览次数:

对数控技术进行了总体概述。

This paper gives a general overview of NC technology.

1. 数控技术发展的52年间,主要经过了六个主要阶段:电子管数控系统、晶体管数控系统、集成电路数控系统、小型计算机数控系统、微处理器数控系统、基于工业PC的通用CNC系统。

1. The 52-year development of NC technology has mainly gone through six main stages: electronic tube numerical control system, transistor numerical control system, integrated circuit numerical control system, minicomputer numerical control system, microprocessor numerical control system and general CNC system based on industrial PC.

2. 数控机床加工的原理是:首先要将被加工零件的图样及工艺信息数字化,用规定的代码和程序格式编写加工程序;然后将所编程序指令输入到机床的数控装置中;再后数控装置将程序(代码)进行译码、运算后,向机床各个坐标的伺服机构和辅助控制装置发出信号,驱动机床各运动部件,控制所需要的辅助运动,比较后加工出合格零件。

2. The principle of NC machine tool processing is: first, digitize the drawing and process information of the machined parts, and write the processing program with the prescribed code and program format; then input the programming instructions into the NC device of the machine tool; then, the NC device decodes and calculates the program (code) to each machine tool. The coordinate servo mechanism and auxiliary control device send out signals to drive the moving parts of the machine tool, control the auxiliary movement needed, and finally process qualified parts.

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3. 数控机床主要由加工程序、输入装置、数控系统、伺服系统、测量反馈装置、辅助控制装置及机床等七个部分组成。

3. NC machine tool is mainly composed of seven parts: processing program, input device, NC system, servo system, measurement feedback device, auxiliary control device and machine tool.

4. 数控机床按加工工艺方式可分为切削机床类、成型机床类、特种加工机床类、其它机床类;按控制系统功能可分为点位控制、点位直线控制、轮廓控制数控机床;按伺服控制方式可分为开环、闭环和半闭环控制数控机床。按数控系统的功能水平可分为高、中、低三档数控机床。

4. CNC machine tools can be divided into cutting machine tools, forming machine tools, special machine tools and other machine tools according to the processing methods; CNC machine tools can be divided into point control, point linear control and contour control according to the control system functions; CNC machine tools can be divided into open-loop, closed-loop and semi-closed-loop control according to the servo control mode. According to the function level of CNC system, it can be divided into three grades: high, medium and low CNC machine tools.

5. 数控机床对操作维修人员有较高的技术要求,对刀具夹具也有较高的要求。数控机床主要适用于批量小而又多次生产的零件、几何形状复杂的零件、加工过程中必须进行多种加工的零件、必须严格控制公差的零件、工艺设计会变化的零件、需全部检验的零件。

5. NC machine tools have higher technical requirements for operators and maintenance personnel, and higher requirements for tool fixtures. CNC machine tools are mainly suitable for parts produced in small batches and many times, parts with complex geometry, parts that must be processed in a variety of ways, parts that must be strictly controlled in tolerance, parts whose process design will change, and parts that need to be inspected all.

6. 市场上使用的数控系统很多,编程时应按所使用数控系统代码的编程规则进行编程。

6. There are many CNC systems used in the market. When programming, it should be programmed according to the programming rules of the CNC system code used.


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